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OS X El Capitan logo.svg
OS X Yosemite.png
Developed Apple Inc.
Rodina OS Unix/Darwin/NEXTSTEP
project status current
Model code Closed (with free components)
The latest stable release 10.12.4 (Build 15F34) / March 27, 2017 ; 18 months ago ( 03.27.2017 )
available languages Ukrainian (included in the distribution since 10.7) + Other
Available programming languages C++Objective C, Swift і C Platforms supported x86, x86-64, PowerPC (including version 10.7)
core type Hybrid core
License proprietarna

CMNS: macOS on Wikimedia Commons

macOS (including version 10.7 - Mac OS X , version 10.11, inclusive - OS X ; read [oʊ ɛs tɛn]) - POSIX - compliant operating system corporation Apple. Is the successor to Mac OS 9 - the so-called final release "classical» Mac OS - the main operating system of Apple since 1984. OS X includes a family of operating systems Apple OS X, which also includes operating system for mobile devices - Apple iOS. In macOS used kernel Darwin, is based on a microkernel Mach, which contains code written by Apple itself and the code derived from NeXTSTEP OS and FreeBSD. Apple macOS released for computers Macintosh (Mac) PowerPC based processors and Intel (starting with version 10.6,) macOS supports only Mac computers based on the processor Intel. Mac OS - the second most popular operating system in the world. Its market share in June 2010 - ▲ 6,8%.


  • 1 Inventory
  • 2 Compatible
    • 2.1 Software
    • 2.2 Hardware
    • 2.3 Hakintosh
  • 3 Features
  • 4 Price
  • 5 Timeline versions
    • 5.1 Mac OS X
    • 5.2 Mac OS X Server
  • 6 See. also
  • 7 References
  • 8 Notes

Description [ red. | row. code ]

OS X is significantly different from previous versions of Mac OS. The basis of the system is a core called Darwin. Its core is XNU (recursive acronym of «Xnu Not Unix» - «Xnu - not Unix '), which uses a Mach kernel and standard services BSD. All functions are available through the Unix command line interface.

Floor this foundation by Apple developed many of its components, such as Quartz Composer and Finder.

OS X has included many features that make it more stable than the previous version of Mac OS 9.

OS X uses preemptive multitasking and memory protection that allow you to run multiple processes that can not interrupt or affect each other. In OS X architecture influenced OPENSTEP, which was conceived as an operating system that is easy portuyetsya. For example, NEXTSTEP was ported from platform 68k NeXT computer before it - NEXTSTEP - was bought by Apple. So OPENSTEP been ported to PowerPC as part of Rhapsody.

The most notable change was the interface Aqua. Use rounded corners, translucent colors and light bars just affected the appearance of the first hardware iMac 's. Some people did not like it - they felt it was unprofessional. [2] Others were satisfied and considered it a step forward. [2] After the release of the first version of OS X other developers also began to use design Aqua. To prevent the use of his design on other platforms Apple used the services of lawyers [3]

OS X also includes a software development environment Xcode, which allows to develop applications in multiple languages ​​including C, C ++, Objective-C, and Java. It supports compilation of the so-called "universal application» (Universal Binary), which can run on multiple platforms (x86, PowerPC), as well as «fat binaries» used to run the same program on both the 68k and so on PowerPC platforms.

Fundamentals of OS X are:

  • Subsystem open source - Darwin (kernel Mach, a set of utilities BSD).
  • Programming Environment Core Foundation (Carbon API, Cocoa API and Java API);
  • A desktop environment Aqua (QuickTime, Quartz Extreme and OpenGL);
  • Technology CoreImage, CoreAudio and CoreData.

Compatible [ Ed. | Ed. code ]

Software [ Ed. | Ed. code ]

To ensure smooth transition from Mac OS 9 to OS X has been ported Carbon. Application written with the help of Carbon, can be performed on any of the Mac OS. On the other hand OS X inherits much of OPENSTEP, which is not backward-compatible with other versions of Mac OS. At that time, Apple recommends API, called the Cocoa. Heritage OPENSTEP / NEXTSTEP quite noticeable for developers on Cocoa - the names of many classes beginning with «NS» (NSObject, NSArray), which is an acronym for NEXTSTEP.

OS X also supports Java. Programs written in Java and uses Swing look just like applications using Cocoa. Traditionally, when applications developed for Cocoa Objective C, an alternative to Java. However, July 25, 2007 Apple announced that further expansion will portuvatysya Cocoa in Java. As part of OS X, from version 10.5 Leopard, comes with support for Ruby interpreter Cocoa.

OS X, unlike predecessors based on the core BSD. [4] This means that most applications written for BSD, GNU / Linux and other UNIX-like systems, compile and will work on OS X almost, or completely, without any change in the code. For easy installation of programs designed package manager like Fink or MacPorts (previously - DarwinPorts). They like apt on Debian or ports in FreeBSD.

Starting with version 10.3 OS X also includes - adapted version of the X-server. This allows OS X to run programs designed for X11 using gtk, QT for X11 (QT 4.0 supports OS X), and others. To display the uses Quartz. However has a number of problems such as lack of Aqua-style design and incomplete applications support Unicode.
Earlier versions can run OS X-server via XDarwin.

OS X is based on the core XNU, created based microkernel Mach 3.0. [4]

Hardware [ Ed. | Ed. code ]

Early versions of Mac OS X support all computers Macintosh (laptops, desktops or servers) processors PowerPC G3, G4 and G5. Later versions of OS X no longer support the old equipment, for example, Panther does not support older G3, Tiger does not support systems without FireWire port Mac OS X Leopard does not support the G3 at all. However, there are utilities such as XPostFacto created by third-party developers to install new versions of OS X on hardware that is not officially supported by Apple, including some up-G3 system.

Version Mac OS X for PowerPC applications remain compatible with the old Mac OS via emulation Classic, which allows users to run Mac OS 9 as a process in Mac OS X. Classic does not support computer processors Intel.

In April 2002, eWeek reported rumors that Apple is a version of Mac OS X, code-named Marklar that run on Intel x86 processors. The idea was to move Marklar Mac OS X on an alternative platform that will allow Apple to overcome the problems of development platforms PowerPC. The rumors were not confirmed until May 2005, when a file-sharing networks a version for Mac OS X processors Intel.

June 6, 2005, Steve Jobs confirmed the rumors and announced at WWDC, that within two years Apple will switch from PowerPC processors to Intel. Before that, Apple changed the platform with Motorola 68K on the IBM / Motorola PowerPC - Apple included a Motorola 68K emulator in the new OS which allows 68K run most applications. Apple emulator support for 11 years, however, the transition to Intel it removed. The new OS was included emulator PowerPC, called Rosetta. Similarly, a new version of XCode and related utilities allow you to develop universal binaries (fat binaries) - binary files which can include software for multiple platforms (ppc, ppc64, i386, ...)

Today, most applications are only available for PowerPC, is supported by the emulator Rosetta. However, Apple asks developers create Universal applications for both platforms. Universal programs run faster on computers with processors from Intel, than the application for PowerPC. PowerPC software as a kernel extension plug-ins and system settings (System Preferences) is not supported on Intel-computers.

While the MacIntel'y can run PowerPC, x86 and universal application, PowerPC Macs can run only universal and PowerPC applications. Support for PowerPC platform remains in Mac OS X 10.5. Jobs also confirmed rumors that the new version of Mac OS X on Intel to start up most of its existence as OPENSTEP been ported to many platforms, including x86, and Darwin included support for both PowerPC and x86.

Mac OS X has been ported to the iPhone and iPod Touch. Despite the major changes, such as closure platform and no desktop (replaces SpringBoard), some programs have survived the effects of the desktop version, for example, the program Converter.

Hakintosh [ Ed. | Ed. code ]

Apple announced that Mac OS X will not run on Intel-based personal computers are not designed by Apple, but there are hacked versions of Mac OS X that run on hardware with architecture x86. They OSx86 community developed and made available via file-sharing networks (see. Hakintosh).

Features [ Ed. | Ed. code ]

  • The internal model Quartz graphics layer interacts well with the Portable Document Format (PDF), making it possible to output PDF to multiple devices.
  • Full-color scalable icons.
  • Shadows around window and isolated text elements give a sense of depth.
  • Global menu for applications - spell checker, special characters palette, color selection, font selection and vocabulary.
  • Smooth widgets, text, graphics and window elements.
  • New interface elements, such as droery (drawers) and modal dialog boxes for the document.
  • The new concept task switcher - Doc.
  • "Floating" focus ( Interweaving windows ) when switching between windows of different applications.
  • ColorSync is used to select the color, built-in library of drawing, print or multimedia.
  • OpenGL is used to display windows on the screen that allows you to use hardware acceleration. This technology (introduced in 10.2) is called Quartz Extreme.
  • Dashboard (appeared in version 10.4) supports small applications, called widgets (widgets), which may be caused and hidden with one click.
  • Exposé (appeared in version 10.3) - shows all open windows as miniature that allows you to switch between them, shows all program documents as thumbnails or hides all windows to access the desktop.
  • Using Unicode throughout the operating system.
  • A well designed architecture allows for localization completely separate application code from text information.
  • FileVault (appeared in version 10.3) encrypts the user's home directory with 128 bit AES.
  • Spotlight search technology (appeared in version 10.4) makes quick retrieval of data, emails, photos and other information in real time. Based on the properties of the file and / or its contents.
  • Automator (appeared in version 10.4) - a program that automates the steps taken to different applications.
  • "Keyring» (Keychain) - system of passwords, certificates, key. Allows underlay store such data in a single encrypted vault. Applications running on user can access the data of other programs stored in the "bundle of keys."
  • Smart Folders (introduced in version 10.4) allow you to create dynamically updated catalogs, depending on the search criteria.
  • Good particular set of Human Interface Guidelines, which most applications should make their intuitive. It consists of interface elements and keyboard shortcuts.
  • Xgrid allows Maqam participate in distributed computing.
  • Built in virtual file system disk images. Dmg support encryption, compression, and optional ability to read / write.
  • Built synchronization services (introduced in version 10.4) allow applications to contact the centralized extensible database for various elements of the user, such as calendar, contacts or passwords. The operating system manages conflicts and storage.

Price [ Ed. | Ed. code ]

Mac OS X is included in the price of new computers Apple Macintosh. Small updates can be downloaded via Software Update (software update) and distributed free of charge. Significant update (the next version of the operating system) cost 129 dollars in the US, in Europe 129 euros, in Russia - about 4,200 rubles. There is also a version of Mac OS X «Family Pack», which is worth US $ 199 and allows the OS to five computers specifically for users with more than one poppy. Since version Lion, operating system sold at a price of 29.99 dollars, why buy when you can only App Store. Starting with version 10.9 Mavericks OS X is free.

Developers can register online for free Apple Developer Connection (ADC) and load out tools for development, such as Xcode and documentation. ADC also offers some premium services, including a license to "test and development" for releases and beta versions of Mac OS X.

For pupils, students and the price of the license is 50% - 90% of the standard retail. January 7, 2007 server version of Mac OS X on 10 clients in the US cost $ 499 and an unlimited number of clients 999 dollars.

Timeline versions [ Ed. | Ed. code ]

The X OS mac [ Ed. | Ed. code ]

  • 10.0 Public Beta - 2000.
  • 10.0 Cheetah (cheetah) - 2001.
  • 10.1 Puma (Puma) - 2002.
  • 10.2 Jaguar (Jaguar) - 2003.
  • 10.3 Panther (Panther) - 2004.
  • 10.4 Tiger (Tiger) Build 8A428 April 29, 2005
    • 10.4.1 Build 8B15 May 16, 2005
    • 10.4.2 Build 8C46 July 12, 2005
    • 10.4.3 Build 8F46 October 31, 2005
    • 10.4.4 Build 8G32 January 10, 2006
    • 10.4.5 (PowerPC) Build 8H14 February 14, 2006
    • 10.4.5 (Intel) Build 8G1454 February 14, 2006
    • 10.4.6 (PowerPC) Build 8I1119 April 3, 2006
    • 10.4.6 (Intel) Build 7U16 April 3, 2006
    • 10.4.7 (PowerPC) Build 8J135 June 27, 2006
    • 10.4.7 (Intel) Build 8J2135 June 27, 2006
    • 10.4.8 (PowerPC) Build 8L127 September 29, 2006
    • 10.4.8 (Intel) Build 8L2127 September 29, 2006
    • 10.4.9 (PowerPC) Build 8P135 March 13, 2007
    • 10.4.9 (Intel) Build 8P2137 March 13, 2007
    • 10.4.10 (PowerPC) Build 8R218 June 14, 2007
    • 10.4.10 (Intel) Build 8R2218 June 20, 2007
    • 10.4.11 (PowerPC) Build 8S165 November 14, 2007
    • 10.4.11 (Intel) Build 8S2167 14 November 2007
  • 10.5 Leopard (Leopard) Build 9A581 - October 26, 2007
    • 10.5.1 Build 9B18 - 15 November 2007
    • 10.5.2 Build 9S31 - 11 February 2008
    • 10.5.3 Build 9D34 - 28 May 2008
    • 10.5.4 Build 9E17 - 1 July 2008
    • 10.5.5 Build 9F33 - September 16, 2008
    • 10.5.6 Build 9G55 - 15 December 2008
    • 10.5.7 Build 9J61 - May 12, 2009
    • 10.5.8 Build 9L30 - August 5, 2009
  • 10.6 Snow Leopard (Snow Leopard, Irbis) Build 10A432 - August 28, 2009.
    • 10.6.1 Build 10B504 - September 10, 2009
    • 10.6.2 Build 10C540 - November 9, 2009
    • 10.6.3 Build 10D573 - March 29, 2010
    • 10.6.4 Build 10F569 - June 16, 2010
    • 10.6.5 Build 10H548 - 12 November 2010
    • 10.6.6 Build 10J567 - January 6, 2011
    • 10.6.7 Build 10J869 - March 21, 2011
    • 10.6.8 Build 10K540 - June 23, 2011
  • 10.7 Lion (Leo) Build 11A511 - 20 July 2011
    • 10.7.1 Build 11B26 - August 16, 2011
    • 10.7.2 Build 11C74 - October 12, 2011
    • 10.7.3 Build 11D50 - February 1, 2012
  • 10.8 Mountain Lion (Mountain Lion or Mountain Lion) Build 12A269 - 16 July 2012. Now the title is no word «Mac».
    • 10.8.1 Build 12B19 - August 23, 2012
    • 10.8.2 Build 12C54 - September 19, 2012
    • 10.8.2 Build 12C60 - October 12, 2012
    • 10.8.3 Build 12D78 - 14 March 2013
    • 10.8.4 Build 12E55 - June 4, 2013
  • 10.9 Mavericks Build 13A603 - 22 October 2013
    • 10.9.1 Build 13B42 - December 16, 2013
    • 10.9.2 Build 13C64 - February 25, 2014
  • 10.10 Yosemite Build 14A389 - 16 October 2014
    • 10.10.1 Build 14B25 - November 17, 2014
  • 10.11 El Capitan Build 15A284 - 30 September 2015
    • 10.11.1 Build 15B42 - October 21, 2015
    • 10.11.2 Build 15C50 - December 8, 2015
    • 10.11.3 Build 15D21 - 19 January 2016
    • 10.11.4 Build 15E65 - March 21, 2016
    • 10.11.5 Build 15F34 - May 16, 2016
    • 10.11.6 Build 15G31 - July 18, 2016
  • 10.12 Sierra Build 16A323 - 20 September 2016
    • 10.12.1 Build 16B2555 - October 24, 2016
    • 10.12.2 Build 16C67 - December 13, 2016
    • 10.12.3 Build 16D32 - 23 January 2017
    • 10.12.4 Build 16E195 - 28 March 2017

The X Server OS mac [ Ed. | Ed. code ]

  • 1.0 - 16 March 1999
  • 10.0 Public Beta - September 13, 2000
  • 10.0 - 24 March 2000
  • 10.1 - 25 September 2001
  • 10.2 - 24 August 2002
  • 10.3 - October 24, 2003
  • 10.4 - 29 April 2005
  • 10.5 - October 26, 2007
  • 10.6 - 28 August 2009
  • 10.7 - 20 July 2011
  • OS X 10.8 (Mountain Lion Server) - July 25, 2012
  • OS X 10.9 (Mavericks Server) - October 22, 2013
  • OS X 10.10 (Yosemite Server 4.0) - October 16, 2014

See. and [ Ed. | Ed. code ]

  • Mac OS
  • Apple DOS
  • GNU / Linux
  • FreeBSD
  • PearPC

References [ Ed. | Ed. code ]

  • version of Mac OS X on the website of Apple (English)
  • Page Darwin OS at Apple
  • OS X
  • Viruses under Mac OS X for the situation of malware for Mac
  • Tips for Working with Mac OS X
  • The history of Mac OS X
  • Packets Ukrainianization Mac OS X

Notes [ Ed. | Ed. code ]

_1-0 "> and


  • а б
  • a b Amit Singh. XNU: The Kernel. What is Mac OS X? (in English). Archive for the original 2011-08-22. 

  • Retrieved from


    macOS Mojave

    - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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    macOS Mojave
    MacOS Mojave wordmark.svg
    developer Apple
    OS family macOS
    Based on Unix
    Source Indoor (with free components)
    First edition September 24, 2018
    The latest version
    • 10.14 ( 24 September 2018 )
    Latest test version 10.14 public beta 12 (29 August 2018)
    update method Mac App Store
    Supported languages Multilingual
    Supported platforms x64
    core type hybrid kernel
    License Apple Public Source License
    Apple EULA
    condition free update
    Previous macOS High Sierra

    Mojave MacOS (version 10.14) - the operating system for personal computers and servers, developed by Apple. This is the fifteenth in a row version of MacOS. Announced on 4 June 2018 at WWDC 2018 [1] . It focuses on improving the functionality provided in macOS High Sierra. This version is the first time includes the application of iOS, such as News, Stocks, Voice Recorder and Home, as well as dark design theme [2] . Mojave will be the last version macOS with support for 32-bit programs [3] . Named in honor of the Mojave Desert, located in the south-western United States.


    • 1 Changes and innovations
    • 2 Supported computers
    • 3 See. Also
    • 4 Notes
    • 5 References

    Changes and innovations [ citation needed | edit the code ]

    • Dark mode allows you to use interface in a dark color scheme. When this content becomes more prominent, and controls go by the wayside. In addition to desktop feature with built-in applications such as the Mail, Messages, Maps, Calendar and Photos. API gives developers the ability to use a dark mode and in their applications.
    • Dynamic wallpaper, changing depending on the time of day.
    • one extension files can be automatically combined into stacks to organize your desktop space.
    • In the Finder, a new Gallery View playback mode (instead of Cover Flow), allowing you to view photo thumbnails, as well as detailed information about the metadata.
    • Four new applications ported from iOS: News, Promotions, Voice Recorder and Home. Developers will be able to port their mobile applications on macOS in 2019.
    • FaceTime calls support group conferences for up to 32 participants.
    • Mac App Store has been completely redesigned and has a new design, as well as thematic sections and easy to navigate.
    • In Safari, improved system of preventing Tracking of users through the button "Like" and "Share" and comments widgets in social networks. The browser has received the ability to automatically generate strong passwords when a user creates a new account at the site and replace the duplicate passwords.
    • Now to use your webcam and microphone, as well as access to personal data, the application must obtain permission from the user.
    • New screenshots editor that allows you to select multiple options screen removal, including video.
    • With the help of Continuity Camera function to take a picture or scan a document on an iPhone or iPad, and quickly transfer the file to your computer.

    Supported computers [ citation needed | edit the code ]

    For MacOS Mojave requires a Mac with support for computers Metal (the API) [en] : [4]

    • Models iMac, released in late 2012 or later
    • MacBook models introduced in early 2015 or later
    • Model MacBook Pro, released in mid-2012 or later
    • Model MacBook Air, released in mid-2012 or later
    • Model Mac mini, released in late 2012 or later
    • Model Mac Pro, released in late 2013, and in mid-2010 and 2012. the recommended video card supporting Metal.
    • Models iMac Pro, released in late 2017 or later

    . See also [ edit | edit the code ]

    • macOS

    Notes [ edit | edit the code ]

    1. Watch the Apple WWDC Special Event (англ.). Apple (4 June 2018).
    2. Jacob Kastrenakes. macOS Mojave update announced with dark mode, redesigned App Store, Apple News, Stocks, and more, The Verge (4 июня 2018). Архивировано 6 июня 2018 года.
    3. Apple's Confirms the Mojave is the Release of Last MacOS to 32 How it works Support Apps, Bit-, the Mac Rumors  (June 5, 2018). Archived June 7, 2018.
    4. Juli Clover. MacOS 10.14 Mojave Drops Support for Many Older Machines (англ.). MacRumors (June 4, 2018).

    References [ edit | edit the code ]

    • Official website of Apple macOS Mojave
    Preceded by:
    MacOS 10.13
    macOS 10.14

    Source -

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