When constructing the first regular army

When constructing the first regular army

2) Connect a considerable mass of the armed forces on a single theater of war, under the command of a person, in order to achieve a certain goal.

When focusing on a single theater of war rather considerable forces, direct management of all of them is impossible for a single commander, and therefore, when the number of troops to a certain limit or razbroske them over long distances, it becomes necessary to divide them into separate armies, as an association.

In primitive society, the people and the army is the concept of identity. All free males capable of bearing arms were warriors. But specialization training that accompanied the transition to a settled way of the nations, the specific nature of culture and the basic features of the political system arising States to provide a compelling impact on the military organization of the peoples.

In ancient India and ancient Egypt, the soldiers stood out in particular hereditary caste.

The same character was of the caste and the military unit of Sparta, but there was the whole military caste people in its full composition (the Dorians). In Sparta the right of arms belonged to only one of the Dorians; the rest of the free population (perieki) and slaves (helots) could only be prizyvaemy to arms.

Greek phalanx.

In Athens and in other Greek republics the state armed forces were composed of free citizens. Since being called to arms only in case of war, the armed forces of these republics had the character of civilian militias. Permanent troops in these countries were in small quantities and were intended primarily for peacetime security service, which at the same time served as a military preparatory school for young men.

However, with increasing duration of wars and the decline of the militant spirit among the people, the civic militia of the Hellenic Republic to gradually replace the mercenaries, who became the main material for army recruitment. In Carthage the mercenary was a necessary consequence of the small size of the natural people, to concentrate all their interests in an extensive trade; accumulation of huge capital enabled the republic to buy military forces not only in Africa, but also much of Europe.

In ancient Rome, the right to bear arms belonged to all citizens, both patricians and plebeians; in case of war or army they formed another tribe, or all the people in its entirety. When later instead of dividing people in the tribe was made at the suggestion of Servius Tullius, its division into on to the census classes, that is, the amount of income, the poorest citizens have been released from the obligation to perform military service and calls to arms only in case of emergency, with over while under the banner of a certain remuneration received from the government. Ancient Rome did not know at the time of the standing army; it became citizens under arms only in case of war and disbanded at the conclusion of peace. The army was of the ancient Romans, so the character of the people's militia.

The Roman army crossing the river. bas-relief

Incessant wars waged by Rome soon transformed the military unit Servia. It has undergone a radical transformation when Mary, whose victory in jugurthine war made him an extremely popular position in the state. We produce them manning army of hunters and, moreover, primarily from the poorest classes of the population - the proletariat - not only sharply separated the military structure of the state of the civil, but also contributed to the formation of special military class, for whom the war had become a profession. Securing join the ranks of the army of citizens for the duration of the war, along with continued about 20 years internecine wars led under the banner of a huge number of people who svykshayasya with military life, we were already ready material for the formation of a standing army.

Since the beginning of the imperial period of Roman history, the troops are not convened for more than one campaign, and stay on the service in peacetime; they are equipped with the proletarians, and the payment of salaries, formerly temporary vospomoschestvovaniem, is the usual rule. Old Roman principle, only Roman citizens could enter into force in the ranks of the army which, over time, has undergone considerable distortion. More August strictly differentiated between the legions of citizens from vospomogatelnyh troops from foreigners. But from the time of Vespasian Italians were actually exempted from military service, and the legions began to get their staffing of the provinces, so that the difference between them and the auxiliary cohorts increasingly smoothed out. Despite the existence of the principle of universal conscription, recruitment of the army was based in fact on the voluntary introduction of the staff and on recruitment. This army, composed of a mixture of nationalities, was associated with a state body only in the person of the emperor; It even had its own special, distinct from the civil cult and customs; She was a force in itself, and this power, in the absence of the legitimate rights of succession to the throne, enthroned emperors. Crowds barbarian, Germanic peoples began to enter into the army and under the emperor Valentinian I hired the German squad has already accounted for half of all the troops of the Roman Empire.

We Germans destroyed the Western Roman Empire and founded on its ruins the new government, the army had the character of the People's Militia (Heerbann). And here, as in all primitive peoples, the concept of the army and the people are the same. Military unit of the ancient Germans was based on generic communication. But the transformation of the minor political connections in large tribal unions, with the beginning of the warlike migrations of peoples and tribes with an aggressive movement through the Roman border, the Germans start to get stronger royal power. Kings in the distribution of land saw the only means to attract subjects to his service. The granting of land was due to the site owner's duty to be up in arms whenever the king require this. Crown vassals had to be at the service of the King, not only personally, but also bring with them detachments of troops, whose number was dependent on the size of the county. A necessary consequence of this order of things was that seniors who receive in flax royal estates, began airing portions of them to others on the same terms on which they received them from the king, to do with it last, in turn, became a vassal relationship to his overlord. The compound of vassalage with benifitsiatom gave the armed force of the feudal Europe a very special character; she received value time national militia, obliged to report for duty at the first request of the sovereign.

The Normans attack the Anglo-Saxon foot during the Battle of Hastings. "Bayeux Tapestry», XI century.

Militarily, the feudal system primarily entailed the replacement of the national militia, which consisted mainly of infantry, heavily armed knightly cavalry, which achieves military success is not in the tactical organization intended to attack the masses and in single combat, depending on personal art and courage. Militia lost its former military significance, and the infantry remained in the medieval towns, where the shops are gradually began to receive military organization.

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Along with the increase of wealth vassals went also enhance their power. they were not part of the service of his sovereign, and even more so, to join the fight against the king. Weakened power of vassals of the Crown was in a critical situation; to create a more or less reliable engagement she had to necessarily refer to the hired troops. With the XIV-XV centuries princes has everywhere sought by his vassals and other subjects in return for military service in kind cash and use them to hire and equipment more robust engagement. By this time there were itinerant military squads, offers its services in the countries of Western Europe to those from whom they expected more benefits; if there is no war, they kept themselves in robberies and looting.

Naomnichestvo all previously appeared in France. Already starting from the XI century there began to appear in large numbers hired squads of Brabant, the Swiss, Scots, and so on. E., Which first were used as a supplement to the feudal army, and then received independent significance. But as feudalism fell into decay, the need for a hired force more and more increased and along with hired by foreign troops by the end of the XIII century are beginning to appear and the local military detachments, the so-called compagnies franches - voluntary company, gang.

The first king to take vigorous measures to the destruction of free mouth was Charles VII. Having established a special tax to cover the costs for the maintenance of the troops, he was able to take tough measures and drastically alter the previous state of affairs. First of all, a number of ordinances issued by King from individuals were deprived of the right preparation of the armed forces, and this right was attributed solely to the prerogatives of the Crown. A person wishing to devote itself to military craft, was to ask for the government patent (Ordinance) on the formation of a company, which value was determined along with the issuance of a patent; captains, to obtain a patent, becoming accountable to the supreme authority for all the atrocities and violations of the law of companies of. These companies are called ordonansovyh (compagnies d'ordonance). They were the first standing army in Europe, organized at the beginning of the military rule of the king. Along with the companies of ordonansovymi, represent cavalry, Charles VII was also trying to organize hiking and zemstvo militia, but these attempts were unsuccessful; when the then existing land relations to give a weapon in the hands of the peasants appeared a dangerous, but because Louis XI destroyed the peasant militia and began to recruit mercenaries by the Swiss infantry recruitment.

Swiss mercenaries fighting with the German mercenaries of the Battle of Marignano (1515)

Naomnichestvo in Germany are organized in the whole system and was completed at the end of the XV century institution landsknehtskih regiments, well-trained military craft and receive regular salary. Mercenaries in the first period of its existence, was a kind of nobility and chivalry military institutions; they had a separate organization with its own internal self-government, its proceedings, with their community customs. The right to form landsknehtskih units were bragging rights; they could only use those knighted and acquired military fame. After the death of Emperor Maximilian I mercenaries changed in its composition, replenished mainly by strong journeymen, and soon turned into ordinary mercenary troops, who, like the Swiss, began to arrive at the service of almost all European states, being guided solely by considerations of profit.

The most favorable conditions for its development naomnichestvo found in Italy, where it has resulted in a special form - kondoterstvo. In the Middle Ages in Italy every town was a separate state. Endless strife and the constant struggle between the cities, looking for a mercenary armed force, led to the formation of free military units, heads of which (condottiere) or received with their retinues to the service of cities or certain sovereign princes, or waged war in their own interest, conquering the whole lands and cities. With the constant increase in the power of the Italian states, and with the rise of the small city republics gradually disappeared and the conditions favored the prosperity kondoterstva; it began to disappear with the end of the XVI century and gradually replaced by a people's militia.

In the Arab caliphate since IX century there was an army of gulyams, some of whom were mercenaries, and some - the slaves, to buy slaves on the markets. Somewhat later in Fatimid Egypt also came the army of aliens slaves, called Mamluks.

In the XVI and XVII centuries in Western Europe, there was a transition from a mercenary to a permanent national armies. Commander ceased to be a private military entrepreneur and makes a servant of the state; Now monarch appoints officers and became the holder of the highest military command authorities. Establishes a hierarchical order of official degrees that can be completed by the monarch.

Battle of Breitenfeld

The first steps towards the creation of a permanent national army were made in France, Cardinal Richelieu. In 1636 he introduced the project on the organization of a permanent national reserve, which was to extend to 60 thousand. Man. However, the implementation of the project was not, and the creator of the first French national army, replenished by recruiting, became Minister of War Louis XIV, Louvois.

In Austria, to the reign of Charles VI army consisted almost exclusively of the regular troops; although she was recruited by recruitment, but from the government every effort to ensure that the troops were taken the most reliable elements were adopted. The first attempt to establish a permanent national army of Austria was made by Maria Theresa. Verbena betsirki - Decree of 1756 all Austrian citizens aged 17 to 40 years, where, for the production of these sets of the entire state has been divided into specific territorial units were involved in the production of recruiting for military service. These regulations, in practice, not quite, however, achieved their goal, as the population, szhivsheesya a recruitment system for a long time continued to evade military service and almost a continuation of the XVIII century in Austria remained a mixed recruitment system, with recruitment, mainly It was used for acquisition of the army in wartime.

In Prussia, the establishment of a permanent national army was laid the beginning of the Great Elector of Brandenburg Frederick William I. They had formed a permanent frame of military training people, at what recruitment recruit made on the territorial principle. In peacetime, the people were fired in his home district; in war they had become under the gun at the first call. manning, which first appeared in Europe - In 1733, a regular konskriptsiya was introduced in Prussia. The essence of the system was the fact that the entire national territory was divided into sections, the cantons, which were distributed lifting yards that supplied by itself a certain number of recruits in the distributed areas of the shelf. Service in the armed forces was established on the basis of the selling system. Although life was originally set for life, but in reality most of the time for military service are in the so-called "royal vacation" and for military service were called only in the summer months every 2-3 years. konskriptsii system introduced by King Frederick William, in Prussia lasted long; mass population evading military service forced Frederick II to resort to recruiting mercenaries and national element in the army by the end of his reign almost completely disappeared.


Battle of Gogenfridberge, "Attack of Prussian Infantry," the picture

Replenishment of permanent armies of Western Europe XVII and XVIII centuries the lower ranks rested mainly on the principle of voluntary recruitment. But when voluntary recruitment to replenish the army was not sufficient, in Prussia and Austria appealed to the forced recruitment; displeasure caused by such a system, and mass escapes of young people abroad forced the government to abandon it.

But also in the countries of Western Europe XVII and XVIII were attempts to create militias, with their organization was associated with the caste structure of the state. Such caste militia existed in the XVII century in Prussia and Hanover. In France under Louis XIV became purely police royal; it is intended primarily to protect the country from invasion, but it is also used to supplement the regular army and external wars. In Prussia during the War of Spanish Succession and attempts were made to create a militia, but of the militia groups here were only peasants royal specific estates. The most widespread use of the idea of ​​organizing a militia troops received in England.

The Russian kingdom in 1550, appeared as a permanent infantry archers, to form a kind strelets class. Also convened horse landed troops in case of war. In 1630, there were the so-called shelf foreign formation. In 1699 Peter I Create a regular army of the European type, based on conscription.

Military of the Ottoman Empire consisted of janissaries sipahskoy cavalry and infantry, which was recruited from the boys taken away from families the Christian subjects of the Ottoman Empire.

In France, the system of military unit has undergone a radical change in the era of the French Revolution. In 1793, compulsory military service, fixed by the law of the Jourdan konskriptsii was introduced in 1798 by the French revolutionary army had become something other than it was the army of the old regime, it was the armed people, by the national enthusiasm.

But from the standpoint of individual serving of guilt, however, it was soon (1800) made a serious departure in the sense that for those in poor health, and for the persons who may bring a state of great benefit in the civil service or his scholarly works, was admitted Commercial representation. Jourdan law on konskriptsii with some modifications retained its strength and in the era of Napoleon's empire.

Review of Napoleon's army in the Boulogne camp August 15, 1804.

Yet France could not immediately fully implement the idea of ​​conscription modern type. This was done in Prussia, and its military apparatus subsequently served as a model for other countries of the military unit. During the Liberation War, the decree was issued in 1813, established the order of acquisition of the Prussian army on the basis of universal conscription and abolished at the same time all the existing up to the time of withdrawal in military service the privileged classes of the population. In the same year, as a further development of the reform was introduced in Prussia in order to increase the army Landwehr system, the essence of which was that the reservists who have served on time in the ranks of the regular army, enlisted then in that part of the armed forces, which was formed only in wartime (landwehr). All individual decisions concerning the reorganization of the army were then combined by law in 1814, according to which the Prussian armed forces were organized as follows: 1) the standing army; in peacetime only contain footage of the troops; in war time they were developed to set state by the call under the banners of persons listed in the reserve; 2) Landwehr troops that were formed only in wartime, and 3) Landsturm - the militia, which consists of all undrafted in the standing army and Landwehr male population capable of bearing arms between the ages of 17 and 49 years; from his militia formed militias to defend the country in the invasion of the enemy its limits. Acquisition of troops was made on the territorial system. With the formation in 1871 of the German Empire of the Prussian ruling army recruiting law in 1874 it has been extended to all the allied states of the empire.

In Austria, until 1852 the dominant forces of the recruitment system was not, and recruits were delivered to the troops on the basis of local statutes. In 1852, the privileges of the different areas in relation to serving their military service have been canceled, and at the same time military service has been made universally, but not personal, as each reservist had the right to put in place a Vice. After the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, revealed the complete failure of the Austrian military system, in Austria-Hungary compulsory military service on the principles of personal and universally valid service was introduced in 1868. Military Austro-Hungarian system was built on the principles of Prussian, but with some significant deviations caused by the dualistic political structure of the state. They are divided into: 1) empire-wide army subordinate to the Minister of empire-wide, and 2) in the two armies of the second line - the Austrian Landwehr and Hungarian Honved. Beyond the service of empire-wide responsibilities in the army and Landwehr (Honvéd) all capable of bearing arms male population of the country was obliged to service at the age of 19-42 years in Landsturm.

In France in 1818 konskriptsiya was canceled, and the production of recruiting volunteers were admitted under shortfall, and in these cases, military service is available in most large scale Commercial representation and the right to exchange the lot numbers. In 1855, the right to Commercial representation in France was abolished and replaced by ransom; Persons wishing to get rid of the personal serving of military service, have made a certain amount of money in a particular subsidized fund, which funds the government has itself hired deputies of the old soldier, who wanted to stay on a secondary service. Austro-Prussian War of 1866, have demonstrated the advantage of Prussian military organization, forced the French government to issue a new law on the army recruiting (marshal law Neli 1868), which was abolished the right to buy and right restored Commercial representation. Act 1868 could not yet have a significant impact on the organization of the French armed forces, war broke out with Prussia. The question of the transformation of the military system has been proposed to the National Assembly immediately after the war, and in 1872 the National Assembly almost unanimously adopted a new law on the acquisition of the army, based on the principle of compulsory and personal serving compulsory military service and does not allow any redemption or Commercial representation.

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Prussian battery of field artillery comes in a French village during the Franco-Prussian War

In the second half of the XIX century the maintenance of conscription in big states became a political necessity. Italy has introduced it in 1871, Japan - in 1872, Russia - 1874 (Military reform of Alexander II). Of the major Western states, only Britain and the United States continued to do without conscription, containing army of volunteers (contract).

The introduction of universal conscription and the establishment of the reserve system, called up for mobilization in case of war, meant that a standing army was, in fact, only frames for those armies that are formed during the war by calling reserve (spare).

Before the First World War, it was assumed, however, that the reservists, mainly to be used to conduct various types of secondary and auxiliary operations (defense and blockade of the fortresses, ensuring communications of the army, to maintain order in the land of the enemy and so on. N. Of employees troops). Such an army of reservists, convened in the event of war, wore in Germany and Austria, the name of the army reserve in Hungary - Honved, in France - the territorial army in Russia - state militia.

Russian soldiers in the trenches, on the front of the First World

During the First World War, millions of reservists joined the ranks of the active army. During the First World War conscript army were created even in the UK and the US, where there were none before the war, but with the end of the war in these countries returned to the system of contract of professional armies.

During the Second World War in the UK and the US were again created conscript army, which remained after its termination in connection with the beginning of the Cold War (in the UK - until 1960, in the US - up to 1973). During the Cold War conscript army had all the Warsaw Pact countries and the majority of NATO countries.

After the end of the Cold War, many countries have refused, in peacetime, by universal conscription (trespass). The threat of large-scale war has considerably decreased, and for local military conflicts are relatively small, professional (mercenary) army, according to some, are better suited than conscription.

Bundeswehr soldiers in Afghanistan (2009) in front of armored vehicles Dingo ATF

Army as a union consists of several housings or divisions. It may or may not be part of the military district, front, Army Group.

Actions of a few army of one country during a war in the various theaters of war are known since ancient times, but the troops in one theater of war were first divided into several armies in the Russian army during the War of 1812.

  • Active army and navy - part of the armed forces of a State that is used during the war directly to warfare (as opposed to the other part of the armed forces of the state, located in the rear). The procedure for referring to the troops of the army and navy established a special government decree and in each state have their own characteristics. The USSR Supreme Soviet to the composition of the army and navy have been made to attribute field management fronts (groups of armies) and fleet management bodies, supervised the preparation and conduct of operations: union, the compounds of the (ship).
  • Invading army - a part of the armed forces of the state, which was intended for an attack on another country, the defeat of the covering forces and part of the main forces, disrupt the mobilization, concentration, and deployment of the armed forces of the adverse party, seizing the strategic initiative, mastering the part of the territory, and under favorable conditions and to output country under attack, from the war. The idea to create such armies found practical reflection of, for example, in the armed forces of Germany, Japan and Italy before the 2nd World War.
  • Army cover - part of the armed forces of a State, destined to the middle of the XX century to cover its borders from the sudden invasion of the enemy, as well as for carrying out mobilization, concentration, and deployment of the main forces. The composition of the covering army determined depending on the Length of borders, their accessibility and the degree of threat. Usually cover the army relied on the system of border fortifications. In modern conditions in connection with the threat of unleashing a nuclear war party in peacetime is constantly kept in full readiness of large forces of the 1st Strategic Echelon. To ensure that the actions of these forces provide an extension to the boundary of the individual compounds and parts, which are called the covering forces. Army cover is not currently used [2] .
  • Expeditionary force - part of the armed forces of one country or coalition of states, had been transferred to another country for military operations. The composition of the expeditionary force depends on the scope and objectives of the operation, the importance of the theater of operations and the expected resistance force. Expeditionary army are most often used for operations in colonial wars and in the implementation of military intervention (for example, the suppression of the Boxer Rebellion European powers 1899-1901 in China).

Previously, the term "army" was also used in the values:

  • Observation (observational) Army [3] and the Navy - a part of the armed forces of the state, which was intended to monitor the enemy's troops in their vicinity or its possessions.

  • Great Soviet Encyclopedia. - 3rd edition. - M .: "Soviet Encyclopedia", 1969-1978.
  • Military Encyclopedic Dictionary. - M .: Military Publishing House of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR, 1984. - 863 p. with fig .;
  • In the Name of Russia: The Russian state, the army and the military training / ed. VA Zolotarev VV Marushchenko, SS Avtyushina / manual on public and state training (UCP) for officers and warrant officers of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. - M .: "Rus-RKB", 1999. - 336 p. - ISBN 5-86273-020-6
  • Savinkov O. Social Institute of the Army and its reflection in contemporary literature / O. Savinkova // Word - text - meaning: Sat. studio. scientific. work / Ural. state. Univ [Philological. factor.]. - Ekaterinburg, 2006. - Vol. 2. - P. 55-58.

Army Wiktionary


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